Personalized learning requires the active directionof the student; individualization lets the school tailor the curriculumto scaled assessments of interest and abilities. The difference betweenindividualization and personalization lies in control.
Deep learning is secured when, through personalisation, the conditions of student learning are transformed.
Engagement is a precondition of learning
Schooling should not be dominated by a curriculum over which students have little ownership and which is delivered to them without the engaging challenges that so many young people crave in the rest of their lives out of school.
Deep experience is secured when schooling is restructured to ensure that all students are fully engaged in their learning.
But how does one close the gap between co-construction and engagement?
The answer, we believe, is that when teachers display a readiness to treat students as active partners in the construction of their education, students respond with the engagement that sets in train a powerful spiral.
The long-standing culture of classrooms is: teaching is telling, learning is listening, knowledge is subject matter taught by teachers and found in books3.
So how do you change this perception of learning?
motivation to prove one’s competence is immaterial without the motivation to improve one’s competence24.
focus on learning can enhance performance, whereas a focus on performance (alone) can depress performance. The effects of performance orientation include greater helplessness, reduced help-seeking, less strategy use, more maladaptive strategies (i.e. strategies which are not proving effective), and a greater focus on grade feedback.
Classroom improvement which enhances learning requires two consecutive shifts:•from teacher-centred towards learner-centred•and then towards learning-centred classrooms.
The shift from teacher-centred to learner-centred has been described56 along three dimensions:• more active learning, so that learners are not merely more active through creating, deciding, and so on, but are also more actively learning through the explicit review of their experience and the meaning-making this involves• more collaborative learning, so that learners come to see themselves and others as resources in meaning-making, rather than teacher being sole fount of knowledge• more learner-driven learning, so that learners come to drive the agenda as they generate questions, organise inquiry and evaluate their own products and progress.
more learning about learning, so that learners come to see themselves as such, develop authentic language about their experiences of learning, and come to propose improvements for how their learning can be develop
ffectiveness as a learner hinges on the ability to be versatile as a learner, to have a rich view of learning and a learning orientation which is in turn linked to the ability to plan, monitor and review one’s learning - aspects which metalearning promotes.
that a culture change in our classrooms can increase performance through the process of promoting more effective learning. More autonomous learners are also more likely to collaborate, and are more likely to be self-regulating
Schools with emphasis on autonomy and moderate stress on achievement are associated with learning for understanding. Those with strong emphasis on formal academic achievement have counter-productive effects on learners (50 schools in Australia)12
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